The rapid development of the world economy, especially China’s faster economic development, at a more prominent level, makes China’s demand for coal and other mineral resources are increasing. At present, the amount of coal mining in China’s coal mines is constantly increasing, under this background, the coal mining enterprises put forward higher requirements on the transportation system. The belt conveyor, as the most important part of the mine transportation system, is an important link of mine production that connects the ground and underground “throat”. Whether it can run safely, stably, and efficiently is very important to the smooth production of coal mine enterprises. Therefore, it is very necessary to study the running condition of the belt conveyor, reduce energy loss and prolong its service life.

1 Overview of belt conveyor

1.1 Application characteristics of belt conveyor

Belt conveyor has a very wide range of applications, it is a very simple structure of transport equipment, mainly used in coal mines, steel, and other industries. Relevant enterprises can realize efficient, automatic, and reliable transportation by using belt conveyors in production activities. Belt conveyors can complete a lot of transportation work, and the power consumption is very small, but also can meet the requirements of a more complex use environment. However, in practical application, the belt conveyor often appears to the problem of deviation, mainly due to improper operation or other interference factors in the initial installation process. If the processing is not timely, it will affect the normal production activities of enterprises and cause economic losses to enterprises. Therefore, it is necessary for relevant enterprises and personnel to effectively deal with and analyze the causes of belt deviation, and try their best to ensure the stable operation of the belt conveyor and improve the reliability of safe production of the whole enterprise.

1.2 Harm of belt deviation of belt conveyor

The harm of belt deviation of belt conveyor is as follows: First, belt deviation of belt conveyor affects the normal operation of the conveyor. According to the provisions of coal mine safety regulations, the anti-deviation sensor is installed on the belt conveyor. Once the belt runs off, the conveyor will stop working, which will directly affect the production efficiency of enterprises; Second, belt deviation of belt conveyor will damage the main parts of the conveyor. Once the tape deviates, the axial force of the roller and supporting system will increase. Under the action of such increased axial force, the roller or supporting mixture will produce axial movement and damage the bearing; Tape deviation will lead to tape edge wear, shorten the service life of tape; Third, belt deviation of belt conveyor will cause pollution to the environment. Deviation of conveyor belt will cause coal and other materials transported by conveyor to fly out, resulting in underground environment pollution.

2 Cause analysis of belt deviation of coal mine belt conveyor

There are many reasons for conveyor belt deviation, mainly from the design, installation, and operation process.

2.1 Quality factors of conveyor belt in the coal mine

The unqualified quality of the belt conveyor is an important factor causing belt deviation. Many belt conveyors do not carry out scientific calculations in the structural design stage, resulting in the lack of scientific structure. Once such a coal mine belt conveyor is put into operation, it will cause uneven force and lead to belt deviation. In addition to structural problems, the belt equipped with a belt conveyor also has quality problems. Some tapes were not tested before production, resulting in roughly finished tapes, which could not meet relevant standards, increasing the deviation frequency of tapes. In addition, some auxiliary conveyor work equipment design defects, can not ensure the stability of the belt running process, so the belt is because of uneven force and deviation.


2.2 Installation factors of coal mine belt conveyor

Before the conveyor belt is put into use, relevant personnel should assemble it according to the installation requirements. Installation quality directly determines the safety of conveyor operation. Once there is a problem in the installation process, it will lead to the normal operation of the conveyor, bring economic losses to the enterprise, and even threaten the life and safety of employees. During the installation process, if not strictly by the standard operation, the belt will run away. If the installation process of equipment can not ensure strict alignment, the belt conveyor nose and tail will not be in a line, which will directly affect the direction of belt operation; In the process of connecting the tape, if the cutting Angle does not meet the requirements, the joint will be skewed, causing the tape to deviate from the normal transport track. Therefore, after the installation of the coal mine belt conveyor, strict testing must be carried out to ensure the stability and safety of the machine in actual operation.

2.3 Material factors of belt conveyor in the coal mine

In addition to the quality and installation factors that will cause belt deviation, the material conveying in the actual operation is also an important factor causing belt deviation. Under normal circumstances, the material falls evenly on the correct transmission point to ensure the stable transmission of the tape.

But in practice, some material properties are not uniform, can not reasonably fall into the designated location of the belt, resulting in large impact fluctuations of the belt, will lead to the belt can not maintain stability and force balance, and finally appear the phenomenon of deviation.

2.4 Operation factors of conveyor belt in the coal mine

During the operation of the belt conveyor in the coal mine, it is easy for workers to cause belt deviation due to non-standard operation. The actual investigation results show that in the use of conveyor, if the staff frequently shut down, frequent unwinding, easy to cause tape damage, resulting in uneven force belt, and then lead to tape deviation.

In addition, if the staff does not clean up the overflow material in time when using the conveyor, resulting in a large number of material residues, will also lead to tape deviation.

2.5 Auxiliary device factors of coal mine belt conveyor

In the practical application of the coal mine belt conveyor, it will be equipped with the corresponding anti-deviation device. Rational use of the device can effectively reduce the frequency of belt deviation. However, in practical application, many devices not only fail to realize the function of anti-deviation but also increase the frequency of the deviation phenomenon. Therefore, it is necessary to set up auxiliary devices reasonably to avoid adverse effects.

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3 Main measures for belt deviation of coal mine belt conveyor

3.1 Belt deviation strategy during operation of coal mine belt conveyor

When the coal mine belt conveyor is running, if there is a deviation in the middle of the belt, it should fine-tune the support and roller group at the deviation point. When the tape runs to the left, the left section and the mixed group move forward, and the right section moves backward; When the belt is running to the right, the opposite operation should be performed.

belt deviation
Cause analysis and treatment measures of belt deviation

When the belt extends from the head or tail of the belt conveyor, the driving or steering drum should be adjusted to ensure that the drum is perpendicular to the belt center.

3.2 Strategy of belt deviation caused by materials in coal mine belt conveyor

When the conveyor belt of a coal mine deviates due to an unreasonable overflow of materials, measures should be taken to deal with the materials. First, ensure that the raw coal is effectively crushed, improve the uniformity, and improve the stress balance of the tape. If the material cannot be broken, its weight should be properly reduced to reduce the pressure on the tape.

Secondly, to control the blanking point, to ensure that the blanking is on the centerline of the tape, avoid a large number of blanking on the side of the tape, otherwise, it will lead to the tape running off. In addition, the falling height of the material should be controlled to avoid impacting the tape and making the tape tilt.

3.3 Coal mine belt conveyor belt deviation strategy due to human operation factors

The relevant staff should regularly clean the conveyor, especially the materials with high humidity. If not cleaned in time, will stay on the belt conveyor, so that the belt force is not balanced, increasing the probability of belt deviation. Staff to carry out regular maintenance and maintenance of the conveyor to ensure its stable and safe operation.

Enterprises should arrange professional maintenance personnel to check the basic structure and operation of the conveyor, especially seriously check the reasons for the deviation of the belt, to avoid leaving safety risks.

3.4 Add auxiliary processing devices

Enterprises should ensure the normal operation of the coal mine belt conveyors, reduce the frequency of deviation, and install automatic deviation correction devices for it. By configuring automatic centering mixing to control the belt centerline, the deviation of the conveyor can be effectively reduced.

When the belt runs off, the belt can be corrected by adjusting the supporting forces on both sides. The function of the device is to monitor the running state of the belt. Once the belt deviation is found, the braking function will be started immediately to stop the belt immediately. The staff will send out corresponding adjustment signals and deal with the belt deviation in time.

4 Conclusion

To sum up, in the production process of coal mines, there are various reasons for belt deviation of belt conveyors. Aiming at the deviation of the belt conveyor, it is necessary to deal with it according to the actual production and specific causes. The parts with unreasonable machine structure should be improved.

When the machine’s centerline is not vertical or does not coincide, should adjust the centerline. At the same time, the relevant personnel should adjust the deviation caused by maintenance reasons, and deal with the existing maintenance defects in a timely and effective manner.

If the belt structure is not correctly installed, the belt joint should be re-installed. Belt conveyor belongs to high loss equipment, enterprises should regularly carry out reasonable maintenance, to ensure that belt conveyor wear can be replaced in time damaged parts, reduce the production line stagnation caused by a belt running deviation.

Widely used in domestic coal mine belt conveyor, it makes the enterprise in the production more efficient, thus effectively guaranteeing the benefit of the enterprise, in the process of actual operation, to the largest extent, reduce the belt running deviation problem arises, conveyor remained stable in the process of work, for a coal mine to realize more economic benefit.

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